Friday, July 17, 2020
The First Experimental Psychology Lab History and Biographies Print The First Experimental Psychology Lab By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Updated on September 16, 2019 Image from the Wikimedia Commons More in Psychology History and Biographies Psychotherapy Basics Student Resources Theories Phobias Emotions Sleep and Dreaming While the study of the mind and behavior may be a subject as old as time, psychology has not always existed as it does today. Most experts actually consider psychology itself a relatively young discipline. So when did psychology really start to emerge as a science? Psychology originally had its earliest roots in philosophy and physiology. According to most psychology historians, it was the establishment of the very first experimental psychology lab that officially marked psychologys beginnings as a separate and distinct discipline.?? When exactly was the first psychology lab formed and who was responsible for this important event in psychology history? The question of which lab was first really depends on whether we look at experimental labs or teaching labs. It might seem like a minor distinction, but it was the formation of the first lab devoted to the experimental study of the mind that truly set psychology off on its own path as an academic and scientific discipline. The Worlds First Psychology Lab Wilhelm Wundt, a German doctor, and psychologist (seated in photo) was responsible for creating the worlds first experimental psychology lab.?? This lab was established in 1879 at the University of Leipzig in Germany. By creating an academic laboratory devoted to the study of experimental psychology, Wundt officially took psychology from a sub-discipline of philosophy and biology to a unique scientific discipline.?? Because of the important role that Wundt played in psychology history, he is often regarded as the father of psychology. Wundt had a significant influence on early psychology and left his mark on some of his most famous students who included James McKeen Cattell and G. Stanley Hall. In addition to being an important figure in the history of psychology, many students were trained in his lab and went on to make their own important contributions to the field of psychology.?? The First Psychology Lab in the U.S. In 1883, Wundts student G. Stanley Hall created the first experimental psychology lab in the United States at John Hopkins University. This helped mark the establishment of psychology in the U.S. and contributed to the further growth of the field.?? Wundt, James, and Hall: Who Was First? It may surprise many to learn that neither Wundt nor Hall can exclusively lay claim to having the worlds first lab or the first American lab. In 1875, a full four years before Wundt established his lab and eight years before Hall established his, Williams James formed a psychology lab at Harvard University.?? So why is James not credited with creating the worlds first laboratory, or at the very least, Americas first lab? Because his lab was used for teaching demonstrations rather than experimentation and original research. For this reason, Wundt and Hall are generally credited with creating the first and second experimental psychology labs.?? The establishment of the worlds first psychology lab is so significant because prior to this time, psychology was still in its infancy and not yet viewed as a distinct discipline in its own right. By forming an experimental lab devoted to the scientific study of the human mind and behavior, Wundt was able to formally establish psychology as a separate field of study. A Word From Verywell Modern psychology is quite different from its rather modest beginnings in Wundts lab. While this first psychology lab likely bears little resemblance to the labs of today, this early experimental setting helped pave the way for the future of psychology. By taking a scientific approach to the study of the human mind and behavior, Wundts lab formally established psychology as a science separate and distinct from the fields of philosophy and biology. Wundts lab was also used to help train other psychologists who went on to help spread psychology throughout the world. Soon, other labs began appearing outside of Germany and the United States, including psych labs in Russia, China, France, and Canada.
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Great Opportunities from High School to College Many individuals believe that attending college directly after high school is a life changing experience This stance can hold true for many reasons regarding the positive aspects for the completion of a college degree. Students should attend college directly after high school because they are more experienced and have great opportunities and benefits rather than waiting to go later on in life. Even though furthering oneÃ¢â¬â¢s education can cause a lot of tension on a person, one will be rewarded in the end for their unique outcomes. On reason an individual would want to pursue a college degree as soon as possible, is so that they would be able to find a great job, and that they would be able toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Another reason high school students should attend college directly after high school is because they do not forget as much information on an education level. For example, a student directly after high school might still remember how to do the quadratic equation given in math, whereas as student who sat out for more than three years is clueless about the quadratic equation. Another benefit would be that individuals can receive TOPS and scholarships if they put forth the effort. This benefit would do an individual well because they would have to only pay for a small amount of college tuition or none at all! One article that supports this statement is from the advocate and states, Ã¢â¬Å"About 90 percent of students who have qualified for scholarships through TOPS since 2005 have accepted them and enrolled in Louisiana colleges and universities. A new report that has identified the 90 percent retention figure and other program stats likely will be used to help back up the Taylor Opportunity Program for Students, which was created, at least in part, to help the state retain its high-achieving high schoolers. Their academics have out-paced the minimum requirements for the program: averaging a 24 on the ACT, or four points higher than required, and 3.25 grade-point averageÃ¢â¬ (Advocate). This should also leave the student in joy and ready to attend college. One other reason high school students should attend college directly after high school isShow MoreRelatedGraduation Speech : High School934 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageslife would be graduation. For many people, graduating from high school is an objective. It takes a lot of time, effort, and determination to accomplish that goal. For others graduation is the end of high school, and the beginning of a new chapter in life. When graduated people feel as if adulthood has begun. In the long run, graduating opens a lot of opportunities for people to thrive. I can almost reminisce the day as if it was yesterday. I was sitting in bed like any other school day. It seemedRead MoreGraduation Speech : High School852 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAccording to a report from Thomas Nelson Community College website, 15.7 percent is the graduation rate in 2010. 84 percent of students failed to receive their degree. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s beyond sad. College can be difficulty especially with everyday life is getting harder to main family life work and financials. Because college is challenging, I know that I have issues that I must overcome. I told myself the more patient s I have the better success I will have. Although college will be difficult my goal isRead MoreGraduation Speech : High School Essay2254 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages The day I graduated from high school The High school graduation day is a life full of journeys for everyone, high school life is a memorable time for most people, for me as well. High school can be filled with lots of good memories for some people and it could be filled with bad memories, for me it was both I had good times and I had bad times. The High school Graduation day should definitely be the best day of your life because that means no more high school, no more having to wake up at 6Read MoreGraduation Speech : High School Graduation854 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfail High School graduation can be an exciting time in a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It is a time in their lives where they begin to experience the kind of freedom that comes along with growing up. This freedom allows students to choose the type of college or University they would like to attend. It is necessary that they understand how responsible they need to be with the freedom that is being offered to them. When choosing what college or university to attend it may be tempting to want to go to a school thatRead MoreGraduation Speech : High School Graduation1507 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesForest English 1010 9/9/2014 Graduation During our lives, most of us have hated getting up early. Whether we as humans enjoy mornings or not, weÃ¢â¬â¢re always looking forward to that unforgettable day. That special is high school graduation for me. Graduation is a ceremony that recognizes students that have excelled through school. Graduation was one of the best days of my life, perhaps even better than the day that I started college. There is no other day like graduation where there comes this feelingRead MoreGraduation Speech : High School Graduation933 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHigh School Graduation With regards to high school graduation, Balfanz, Herzog, and Iver (2007) followed 12,972 Philadelphia students enrolled in traditional middle schools from six grade (1996-1997) until 1 year beyond their expected graduation from high school (2003-2004) in order to understand what indicators would affect their projected graduation date. Unlike many of the early K-8 schools, the population Balfanz et al followed consisted of 64% African American, 19% White, 12% Hispanic,Read MoreGraduation Speech On High School Graduation851 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThere Is No Success Without The Opportunity to Fail High School graduation can be an exciting time in a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It is a time when they begin to experience the kind of freedom that comes along with growing up. This freedom allows students to choose the type of college or University they would like to attend. It is necessary that they understand how responsible they need to be with the freedom that is being offered to them. When choosing what college or university they would like toRead MoreGraduation Speech : High School997 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesup, I loved going to school and dreamed of one day attending college. Attending school every day and receiving good grades had become my top priority from K-12. I excelled from K-8th grade, but entering into high school was completely different than primary school. The atmosphere and environment was new to me, I was free to roam the halls or walk back out the door without any repercussions. This began my downward spiral in high school. My freshman year was by far the best school year for me becauseRead MoreGraduation Speech : High School897 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHigh school was one of the most challenging moments in my life. Not only did I have to deal with the academic pressures and social issues from my peers I had external factors that were heavily impacting me as well. During my junior year my mom separated from her husband and me and my three little brothe rs ended up staying house to house with close relatives. Shortly after that time at the beginning of my senior year, my mom was sent to prison. In the midst of dealing with all of the demands thatRead MoreGraduation Speech : High School Essay1434 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhen I was in high school I had one goal, I would graduate top of my class and go to the University of Florida for pre-medicine, then onto their medical school. I never considered that I would want anything else, so I went to a specialty high school that would allow me to specialize in Biomedical sciences(STEM) and never even thought about the possibility of a life other than the one I had so precisely planned out for myself. When my nephews were born my sophomore year all of my priorities changed
Pagan vs. Christian The holy Catholic Religion had a drastic Christian like impact on the barbarian, Viking Pagans of the Anglo-Saxon Age in England (Elements of Literature 11). The Catholics evolved the aggressive Pagan Vikings into a peaceful society (Williams). We will write a custom essay sample on Paganism vs Christianity or any similar topic only for you Order Now Also, the Catholics substituted their warlike religion and after-life to a more holy and Christian like religion (Chaney 197-217). Along with the altering of the Pagan society and religion, the Catholics also transformed the Pagans dominant government style to a more civilized and unified one (Williams). The Pagans did not expect their society, religion, and government would be shifted to a Christian like style, but it did (Elements of Literature 11). The calm Catholics transformed the brutal Pagan Vikings into a more civilized society (Williams). After the transformation the PaganÃ¢â¬â¢s tribal like communities was changed to towns with Castles (Williams). Also the PaganÃ¢â¬â¢s tradition of oral literature being told by the scop was changed to written language in which the monks wrote (Williams). The unimportance of women in the Pagan society was changed when Virgin Mary the patriot saint helped raise the status of women (Williams). Along changing the type of society the Pagans were accustomed to into a more modern one like the Catholics there was also a change in religious beliefs (Elements of Literature 11 ). The Pagans believed in a warrior death and after-life while the Catholics believed in a holy peaceful religion, this was another alteration the Catholics made upon the Pagans (Chaney 197-217). The Pagans believed there was many gods and the best place to go after death was Valhalla while the Catholics believed in one God and Heaven was the best place after death (Chaney 197-217). The Catholics had an idol to live up to which was Jesus, the son of God, while the Pagans fought in battle to please Valkyries, whom was said to be the person who chose who died in battle (Chaney 197-217). The Pagans lived to die in battle, they believed dying in battle was heroic, the Catholics believed in living a sin free life and living a peaceful after-life (Chaney 197-217). Along with the changing of the PaganÃ¢â¬â¢s arbarian society and warrior like religion the Catholics also evolved their tribal government into a more modern type (Elements of Literature 11). The Pagans believed in the strongest warrior being the King, or leader of the tribe, while the Catholics believed God chose who the heir to the throne would be (Williams). The Pagan king was known to be the bravest of all warriors b ut Catholics substituted the bravery for education and began to educate the Pagans (WIlliams). The Catholics also crated a Parliament in the Pagan tribe, which was something they lacked before ( WIlliams). Pagan warriors believed the strongest of all died to protect the king after the Catholics had an impact of their lifestyle it was believed there was a Diving Right of King (Williams). The Catholics unified England with their transformation of the Pagan lifestyle (Elements of Literature 11). In the end the Pagans resulted in a peaceful society in which provided a common system of morality (Elements of Literature 11 ). The Catholics also provided the Pagans with a common faith of Christianity in which was more peaceful (Chaney 197-217). The most important gift the Catholics gave to the pagans was the transformation of a warrior leader to a militant but yet strategic leader to run a more civilized government (Elements of Literature 11). The calm Christians of the Catholic religion had a positive influence on the barbarous Pagans off the Anglo-Saxon Age in England ( Williams). Although there were many changes made to the Pagan lifestyle there were many more that needed to be made in order for them to be a more civilized nation of what present day England is like today (Elements of Literature 11). How to cite Paganism vs Christianity, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
The Amistad Essay, Research Paper What major decisions can you deduce in respect to the significance of the Amistad Case? In 1839, in Waterss off the seashore of Cuba, a group of 49 Africans ensnared in the Atlantic slave trade struck out for freedom. They had been captured, sold into bondage, carried across the ocean, sold once more, and they were being transported on what was, for 1000000s of Africans, the last leg of the slave trade when they found the opportunity to prehend the enterprise. One of them, a adult male the universe would come to cognize as # 8220 ; Cinque, # 8221 ; worked free of his ironss and led a shipboard rebellion. The vas they won was a schooner that had been named, in a inexorable spot of sarcasm, the Amistad ( # 8221 ; Friendship # 8221 ; ) . The Africans tried to coerce two Cuban subsisters to sail them back to Africa, but the Amistad wound up alternatively in U.S. Waterss, merely past Long Island Sound, where the Africans were once more taken into detention. Spain quickly demanded their extradition to confront test in Cuba for buccaneering and slaying, but their predicame nt caught the attending of American emancipationists, who mounted a legal defence on the Africans # 8217 ; behalf. The instance went through the American judicial system all the manner up to the Supreme Court. The Amistad Case became one of the most of import bondage instances that the state had of all time seen. A instance that would non merely convey different anti-slavery groups together, but a instance that would turn out to be a corner rock in the battle against bondage. It would turn out to be a instance that would hold many influential people step in or seek to, including the president of the U.S. , Martin Van Buren, and a former president, John Quincy Adams. Both instances were strong and demonstrable, but it would be the Supreme Court that would hold the concluding determination to liberate the slaves. The Amistad Case was one of the lone times when three chief groups of emancipationists came together to organize one group in the battle against bondage. Moral Suasion, was one of the chief groups that used in writing illustrations of the wrongs of bondage to turn people against it and fall in the emancipationists. The 2nd group was a group that believed in utilizing faith in the battle against bondage. They spoke out that bondage was a wickedness and the authorities should be built on the rules of God and non adult male. The 3rd group believed in utilizing authorities to derive protagonists of antislavery, they designed particular parties to talk out against bondage. The Amistad brought together all three groups and others in the battle against bondage, they believed the Amistad Case could undersell barriers based on colour and racial biass, the South would lose its major bases for bondage. John Quincy Adams threw himself into the Amistad instance with characteristic energy. During the period from November 1840 to January 1841 he was all about assemblage and construing new grounds to assist put the inkinesss free and turn out a point against bondage. Above all, he seems to hold relished the chance to assail and expose the Van Buren Administration, which he became positive had conspired to act upon the judicial result of the instance. His statements before the Supreme Court didn t do much, in the terminal, to act upon the opinion: Justice Story # 8217 ; s determination took up the points made by Adams # 8217 ; s co-worker, Roger Baldwin. Still Adams # 8217 ; s spirited defence made strong points, gave life to the abolitionist sentiment, and helped to damage Van Buren # 8217 ; s credibleness. Although his function in the Amistad Case was non a big one, he still proved strong points against the establishments of bondage. Martin Van Buren, who was president at the clip, was non in Washington when the Amistad a ffair broke ; he was runing in upstate New York. Therefore his cabinet formulated the administrationÃ¢â¬â¢s initial response: meeting in mid-September, they arranged for federal governments to back up Spanish demands that the Ã¢â¬Å"slavesÃ¢â¬ be returned to Cuba to confront test as liquidators and plagiarists. Van Buren shortly returned to the capital, but he seemed to hold paid small attending to the affair, allowing other decision makers continue to manage the state of affairs. Unlike The Amistad ( the film ) , he did non replace any Judgess on the instance, but did set federal lawyers on the instance. He besides signed off on an attempt to hold the Africans shipped instantly to Cuba if the tribunal found for the disposal, before any entreaties could be filed. In amount, Van Buren wanted this job to travel off, flawlessly and softly. From his point of position, this was non merely a possible diplomatic crisis with Spain, but more basically a slave rebellion Ã¢â¬â a unsafe aggravation to Southerners already unsettled by the rise of northern abolitionism. One enormous obstruction in accomplishing equal rights for inkinesss was the Constitution, which in the eyes of the emancipationists tolerated bondage by doing a affair for sate fundamental laws and Torahs. The 3/5ths Compromise and the Fugitive Slave Clause were seen as back uping bondage and hence the Fundamental law condoned bondage. Make the fundamental law let a model for bondage and support civil rights of Whites and what was the position of inkinesss? These were two chief inquiries asked by emancipationists in respect to the Constitution and bondage. An amendment to revoke bondage was non possible ; it would neer be passed by 3/4ths of the provinces. The lone solution was to modulate the interstate motion of slaves and forbiding it in districts. There were several statements from both sides that were likely non the strongest, but factored into the larger image of bondage. The pro bondage instance contained statements such as the Africans were barbarians based on their caput form and organic structures. That inkinesss benefit from bondage, and that emancipationists are merely trouble makers who are seeking to stir something up. The anti-slavery instance contained parts about the baronial visual aspect of Cinque and how his actions were similar to those of the U.S. when we revolted against England. Besides how the Africans showed involvement in larning and instruction to confute that they were merely barbarians. The anti-slavery groups won the conflict, but the war was still engaging all over. The fact the slaves were freed on the footing that they were taken illicitly was a solid measure for the emancipationists, but they were non freed on the footing that they were human existences. The sentiment, written by Story, may or may non hold to the full reflected the thought of his southern co-workers, but set forth his ain positions. In it he wrote that the Africans were non plagiarists and were justified in prehending the Amistad for they had exercised # 8220 ; the ultimate right of all human existences in utmost instances to defy oppression. # 8221 ; In the absence of positive jurisprudence # 8221 ; # 8216 ; the ageless rules of justness # 8217 ; had to prevail. # 8221 ; The Amistad instance is considered to be one of the most of import instances sing bondage that was of all time brought into the Supreme Court. It united several types of emancipationists with a common end to carry through and convey new thoughts and procedures of liberating inkinesss to the tabular array. The fact that the two presidents were involved with the instance proves that bondage was a big issue and people had strong sentiments sing it. The fact that the inkinesss were freed was a superior measure for anti-slavery and this instance would populate in the heads of all for old ages to come.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Profile and Crimes of Teresa Lewis Teresa and Julian Lewis In April 2000, Teresa Bean, 33, met Julian Lewis at Dan River, Inc., where they were both employed. Julian was a widower with three adult children, Jason, Charles and Kathy. He lost his wife to a long and difficult illness in January of that year. Teresa Bean was a divorcee with a 16-year-old daughter named Christie. Two months after they met, Teresa moved in with Julian and they soon married. In December 2001, JulianÃ¢â¬â¢s son, Jason Lewis, was killed in an accident. Julian received over $200,000 from a life insurance policy, which he placed in an account that only he could access. A few months later he used the money to purchase five acres of land and a mobile home in Pittsylvania County, Virginia, where he and Teresa began to live. In August 2002, JulianÃ¢â¬â¢s son, C.J., an Army reservist, was to report for active duty with the National Guard. In anticipation of his deployment to Iraq, he purchased a life insurance policy in the amount of $250,000 and named his father as the primary beneficiary and Teresa Lewis as the secondary beneficiary. Shallenberger and Fuller In the summer of 2002, Teresa Lewis met Matthew Shallenberger, 22, and Rodney Ã Fuller, 19, while shopping at WalMart. Immediately after their meeting, Teresa began a sexual relationship with Ã Shallenberger. She began modeling lingerie for both men and was eventually having sexual intercourse with them both. Shallenberger wanted to be the head of an illegal drug distribution ring, but he needed money to get started. If that failed to work out for him, his next goal was to become a nationally recognized hitman for the Mafia. Fuller, on the other hand, did not talk much about any of his future goals. He seemed content following Shallenberger around. Teresa Lewis introduced her 16-year-old daughter to the men and, while parked at a parking lot, her daughter and Fuller had sexual intercourse in one car, while Lewis and Shallenberger had sexual intercourse in another vehicle. The Murder Plot In late September 2002, Teresa and Shallenberger devised a plan to kill Julian and then share the money that she would get from his estate.Ã The plan was to force Julian off the road, kill him, and make it look like a robbery. On October 23, 2002, Teresa gave the men $1,200 to purchase the necessary guns and ammunition to carry through their plan. However, before they could kill Julian, a third vehicle was driving too close to JulianÃ¢â¬â¢s car for the boys to force him off the road. The three conspirators manufactured a second plan to kill Julian. They also decided they would kill JulianÃ¢â¬â¢s son, C.J., when he returned home to attend his fathers funeral. Their reward for this plan would be TeresaÃ¢â¬â¢s inheriting and then sharing the two life insurance policies of father and son. When Teresa learned that C.J. was planning on visiting his father and that he staying at the Lewis home on October 29-30, 2002, the plan changed so that father and son could be killed at the same time. The Murder In the early morning hours of October 30, 2002, Shallenberger and Fuller entered the Lewis mobile home through a rear door that Teresa had left unlocked for them. Both men were armed with the shotguns Teresa has purchased for them As they entered the master bedroom, they found Teresa asleep next to Julian. Shallenberger woke her up. After Teresa has moved to the kitchen, Shallenberger shot Julian multiple times. Teresa then returned to the bedroom. As Julian struggled for his life, she grabbed his pants and wallet and returned to the kitchen. While Shallenberger was killing Julian, Fuller went to C.J.Ã¢â¬â¢s bedroom and shot him several times. He then joined the other two in the kitchen as they were emptying JulianÃ¢â¬â¢s wallet. Concerned that C.J. might still be alive, Fuller took ShallenbergerÃ¢â¬â¢s shotgun and shot C.J. two more times.Ã Shallenberger and Fuller then left the home, after picking up some of the shotgun shells and splitting up the $300 found in Julians wallet. For the next 45 minutes, Teresa stayed inside the home and called her ex-mother-in-law, Marie Bean, and her best friend, Debbie Yeatts, but did not call the authorities for help. Call to 9.1.1. Around 3:55 A.M., Lewis called 9.1.1. and reported that a man had broken into her home at approximately 3:15 or 3:30 A.M. He had shot and killed her husband and stepson. She went on to say that the intruder had entered the bedroom where she and her husband were sleeping. He told her to get up. She then followed her husbands instructions to go to the bathroom. Locking herself in the bathroom, she heard four or five shotgun blasts. SheriffÃ¢â¬â¢s deputies arrived at the Lewis home at approximately 4:18 A.M. Ã Lewis told the deputies that her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s body was on the floor in the master bedroom and that her stepsonÃ¢â¬â¢s body was in the other bedroom. When the officers entered the master bedroom, however, they found Julian severely wounded, but still alive and talking. He was moaning and uttering, Ã¢â¬Å"Baby, baby, baby, baby.Ã¢â¬ Ã Julian told the officers his wife knew who had shot him. HeÃ died not long afterwards. When informed that Julian and C.J. were dead, Teresa did not appear to the officers to be upset. Ã¢â¬Å"I Miss You When YouÃ¢â¬â¢re GoneÃ¢â¬ Investigators interviewed Teresa. In one interview she claimed Julian had physically assaulted her a few days before the murders. Even so, she denied killing him or having any knowledge about who might have killed him. Teresa also told the investigators that she and Julian had talked and prayed together that night. When Julian had gone to bed, she went to the kitchen to pack his lunch for the next day. Investigators found a lunch bag in the refrigerator with an attached note that read, Ã¢â¬Å"I love you. I hope you have a good day.Ã¢â¬ Ã She had also drawn a picture of a smiley face on the bag and had written inside it, Ã¢â¬Å"I miss you when youÃ¢â¬â¢re gone.Ã¢â¬ Money Was No Object Teresa called Julians daughter Kathy on the night of the murders and told her that she had already made the necessary arrangements with the funeral home, but that she needed the names of some of JulianÃ¢â¬â¢s family members. She told Kathy that it wasnt necessary for her to come to the funeral home the following day. When on the next day Kathy showed up at the funeral home anyway, Teresa told her that she was the sole beneficiary of everything and that money was no longer an object. Cashing In Later that same morning, Teresa called JulianÃ¢â¬â¢s supervisor, Mike Campbell, and told him that Julian had been murdered. She asked if she could pick up JulianÃ¢â¬â¢s paycheck. He told her the check would be ready by 4 P.M., but Teresa never showed up. Ã She also informed inÃ that she was the secondary beneficiary of C.J.Ã¢â¬â¢s military life insurance policy. Booker told her she would be contacted within 24 hours as to when she would receive C.J.Ã¢â¬â¢s death benefit. money. A BraggartÃ¢â¬â¢s Demise On the day of the funerals, Teresa called Julians daughter Kathy prior to the services. She told Kathy she had had her hair and nails done, and she had bought a beautiful suit to wear to the funeral. During the conversation she also asked if Kathy was interested in buying Julians mobile home. Investigators learned that Teresa had tried to withdraw $50,000 from one of Julians accounts. She had done a bad job of forging Julians signature on the check, and the bank employee refused to cash it. Detectives also learned Teresa was aware of how much money she would receive upon the deaths of her husband and stepson. Months before their deaths, she was overheard telling a friend the amounts of the cash payouts coming to her, should Julian and C.J. die.Ã ...Just as Long as I get the Money Five days after the murder, Teresa called Lt. Booker to request she been given C.J.Ã¢â¬â¢s personal effects. Lt. Booker told her that the personal effects would be given to C.J.Ã¢â¬â¢s sister Kathy Clifton, his immediate next of kin. This angered Teresa and she continued to press the issue with Booker. When Lt. Booker refused to budge, she again asked about the life insurance money, reminding him again that she was the secondary beneficiary. When Lt. Booker told her that she would still be entitled to the life insurance, Lewis responded, Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s fine. Kathy can have all of his effects as long as I get the money.Ã¢â¬ Confession On November 7, 2002, investigators again met with Teresa Lewis and presented all the evidence that they had against her. She then confessed she had offered Shallenberger money to kill Julian. She falsely claimed that Shallenberger had both Julian and C.J. before JulianÃ¢â¬â¢s money and leaving the mobile home. She said that Shallenberger had expected to receive half of the insurance money, but that she had changed her mind and decided that she wanted to keep all of it for herself. She accompanied investigators to ShallenbergerÃ¢â¬â¢s home, where she identified him as her co-conspirator. The following day, Teresa admitted that she had not been totally honest: she confessed to FullerÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in the murders and that her 16-year-old daughter had assisted with planning the murder. Teresa Lewis Pleads Guilty When a lawyer is handed a murder case as heinous as Lewis case was, the goal switches from trying to find the client innocent, to trying to avoid the death penalty. Under Virginia law, if a defendant pleads guilty to capital murder, the judge conducts the sentencing proceeding without a jury. If the defendant pleads not guilty, the trial court may determine the case only with the consent of the defendant and concurrence of the Commonwealth. Lewis appointed lawyers, David Furrow and Thomas Blaylock, had a lot of experience in capital murder cases and knew that the appointed trial judge had never imposed the death penalty on a capital defendant. They also knew that the judge would be sentencing Fuller to life imprisonment under a plea agreement he had made with the prosecution, were Lewis to testify against Shallenberger and Fuller. Also, they hoped that the judge would show leniency since Lewis had eventually cooperated with investigators and turned over the identities of Shallenberger, Fuller, and even her daughter, as accomplices. Based on this and the heinous facts that had surfaced in the murder-for-hire-profit crime, Lewis lawyers felt that her best chance to avoid the death penalty was to plead guilty and invoke her statutory right to be sentenced by the judge. Lewis agreed. Lewis IQ Prior to Lewis plea, she went through a competency assessment by Barbara G. Haskins, a board-certified forensic psychiatrist. She also took an IQ test. According to Dr. Haskins, the testing showed that Lewis had a Full Scale IQ of 72. This placed her in the borderline range of intellectual functioning (71-84), but not at or below the level of mental retardation. The psychiatrist reported that Lewis was competent to enter the pleas and that she was able to understand and appreciate the possible outcome. The judge questioned Lewis, making sure that she understood that she was waiving her right to a jury and that she would be sentenced by the judge to either life imprisonment or death. Satisfied that she understood, he scheduled the sentencing proceedings. Sentencing Based upon the vileness of the crimes, the judge sentenced Lewis to death. The judge said that his decision was made more difficult by the fact that Lewis cooperated with the investigation and that she had pleaded guilty, but as the wife and stepmother to the victims, she had engaged in the cold blooded, pitiless slaying of two men, horrible and inhumane for profit, which fits the definition of an outrageous or wantonly vile, horrible, act. He said that she had lured men and her juvenile daughter into her web of deceit and sex and greed and murder, and within an incredibly short period of time from meeting the men, she had recruited them, been involved in planning and completing these murders, and within one week before the actual murders she had already made a failed attempt on JulianÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Calling her the head of this serpent, he said he was convinced that Lewis waited until she thought Julian was dead before she called the police and that she allowed him to suffer...without any feelings at all, with absolute coldness. Execution Teresa Lewis was executed on September 23, 2010, at 9 P.M by lethal injection, at Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt,Ã Virginia. Asked if she had last words, Lewis said, I just want Kathy to know I love her. And I am very sorry.Ã Kathy Clifton, the daughter of Julian Lewis and the sister of C.J. Lewis, attended the execution. Teresa Lewis was the first female to be executed in the state of Virginia since 1912, and the first female in the state to die by lethal injection The gunmen, Shallenberger and Fuller, were sentenced to life imprisonment. Shallenberger committed suicide in prison in 2006. Christie Lynn Bean, Lewis daughter, served five years in prison because she had knowledge of the murder plot, but failed to report it. Source: Teresa Wilson Lewis v. Barbara J. Wheeler, Warden, Fluvanna Correctional Center for Women
Sunday, March 1, 2020
The Chemistry of Cyanide Poisoning and Why it Kills Murder mysteries and spy novels often feature cyanide as a fast-acting poison, but you can be exposed to this toxin from everyday chemicals and even common foods. Have you ever wondered how cyanide poisons and kills people, how much it takes before its toxic, and whether there is a cure? Heres what you need to know. What Is Cyanide? The term cyanide refers to any chemical containing a carbon-nitrogen (CN) bond. Many substances contain cyanide, but not all of them are deadly poisons. Sodium cyanide (NaCN), potassium cyanide (KCN), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and cyanogen chloride (CNCl) are lethal, but thousands of compounds called nitriles contain the cyanide group yet arent as toxic. In fact, you can find cyanide in nitriles used as pharmaceuticals, such asÃ citalopram (Celexa) andÃ cimetidine (Tagamet). Nitriles arent as dangerous because they dont readily release the CN- ion, which is the group that acts as a metabolic poison. How Cyanide Poisons In a nutshell, cyanide prevents cells from using oxygen to make energy molecules. The cyanide ion, CN-, binds to the iron atom in cytochrome C oxidase in the mitochondria of cells. It acts as an irreversible enzyme inhibitor, preventing cytochrome C oxidase from doing its job, which is to transport electrons to oxygen in the electron transport chain of aerobic cellular respiration. Without the ability to use oxygen, mitochondria cant produce the energy carrier adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Tissues that require this form of energy, such as heart muscle cells and nerve cells, quickly expend all their energy and start to die. When a large enough number of critical cells die, you die. Exposure to Cyanide Cyanide can be used as a poison or chemical warfare agent, but most people are exposed to it unintentionally. Some ways to be exposed to cyanide include: EatingÃ cassava, lima beans, yucca, bamboo shoots, sorghum,Ã or almondsEating apple seeds, cherry stones, apricot pits, or peach pitsSmoking cigarettesBurning plasticBurning coalInhaling smoke from a house fireIngestingÃ acetonitrile-based products are used to remove artificial nailsDrinking water, eating food, touching soil, or inhaling air that has been contaminatedExposure to rodenticide or other cyanide-containing pesticides Cyanide in fruits and vegetables is in the form of cyanogenic glycosides (cyanoglycosides). Sugars attach to these compounds through the process of glycosylation, forming free hydrogen cyanide. Many industrial processes involve compounds that contain cyanide or can react with water or air to produce it. Paper, textile, photochemical, plastics, mining, and metallurgy industries all may deal with cyanide. Some people report an odor of bitter almonds associated with cyanide, but not all toxic compounds produce the scent and not all people can smell it. Cyanide gas is less dense than air, so it will rise. Symptoms of Cyanide Poisoning Inhaling a high dose of cyanide gas rapidly causes unconsciousness and often death. Lower doses may be survivable, especially if immediate aid is provided. The symptoms of cyanide poisoning are similar to those displayed by other conditions or exposure to any of a number of chemicals, so dont assume cyanide is the cause. In any event, do remove yourself from the cause of exposure and seek immediate medical attention. Immediate Symptoms HeadacheDizzinessWeaknessConfusionFatigueLack of coordination Symptoms From Larger Doses or Longer Exposure Low blood pressureUnconsciousnessConvulsionsSlow heart rateLung damageRespiratory failureComa Death from poisoning usually results from respiratory or heart failure. A person exposed to cyanide may have cherry-red skin from high oxygen levels or a dark or blue coloring, from Prussian blue (iron binding to the cyanide ion). Also, skin and body fluids may give off an odor of almonds. How Much Cyanide Is Lethal? How much cyanide is too much depends on the route of exposure, the dose, and duration of exposure. Inhaled cyanide presents a greater risk than ingested cyanide. Skin contact is not as much of a concern (unless the cyanide has been mixed with DMSO), except touching the compound could lead to accidentally swallowing some of it. As a rough estimate, since lethal dose depends on the exact compound and several other factors, about half a gram of ingested cyanide will kill a 160-poundÃ adult. Unconsciousness, followed by death, could occur within several seconds of inhaling a high dose of cyanide, but lower doses and ingested cyanide may allow a few hours to a couple of days for treatment. Emergency medical attention is critical. Is there a Treatment for Cyanide Poisoning? Because its a relatively common toxin in the environment, the body can detoxify a small amount of cyanide. For example, you can eat the seeds of an apple or withstand cyanide from cigarette smoke without dying. When cyanide is used as a poison or a chemical weapon, treatment depends on the dose. A high dose of inhaled cyanide is lethal too quickly for any treatment to take effect. Initial first aid for inhaled cyanide requires getting the victim to fresh air. Ingested cyanide or lower doses of inhaled cyanide may be countered by administering antidotes that detoxify cyanide or bind to it. For example, natural vitamin B12,Ã hydroxocobalamin, reacts with cyanide to formÃ cyanocobalamin, which is excreted in urine. Inhalation of amyl nitrite may aid breathing in victims of cyanide and also carbon monoxide poisoning, although few first aid kits contain these ampules anymore. Depending on the conditions, complete recovery may be possible, although paralysis, liver damage, kidney damage, and hypothyroidism are possible.